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  • ScoliosisScoliosis

    Scoliosis is a condition characterized by the abnormal curvature of the spine that causes a deviation to one side.

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  • SpondylolisthesisSpondyloarthropathies

    Spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the spine and joints. Spondyloarthropathies can occur at any age, however, they occur more often in young males.

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  • Spine TraumaSpine Trauma

    Spine trauma is defined as an injury or damage to any region of the spine.  The spine extends from the neck to the lower back and consists of the vertebral bones which surround and protect the spinal cord.

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  • Spinal InfectionSpinal Infection

    A spinal infection is described as an infection of the spine. It can occur in various locations of the spine i.e., intervertebral disc space, vertebral column, spinal canal, and nearby soft tissues.

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  • Spinal TumorsSpinal Tumors

    A spine tumor is the abnormal growth of uncontrolled tissues or cells in and around the spinal cord. Tumors can either be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). Tumors that begin in the spine are called primary spinal tumors.

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  • Spine ArthritisSpine Arthritis

    Spine arthritis is a condition characterized by the inflammation, degeneration, or wearing out of cartilage in the joints of the spine.

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  • Spinal InstabilitySpinal Instability

    Spinal instability refers to the condition of failure of the spinal column to maintain its normal structure. Normally, the spine functions to protect and provide support to the body and its internal organs.

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  • Spinal Injuries at WorkSpinal Injuries at Work

    Injuries at the workplace are very common and may be debilitating. Global statistics report that around 260 million non-fatal injuries occur every year around the world of which 350,000 cases may suffer death.

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  • Back PainBack Pain

    Back pain or backache is the pain felt in the back that may originate from damage to the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine.

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  • SciaticaSciatica

    The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in your body. It begins in the lower back and extends through the buttocks down the back of each leg to the thighs and feet.

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  • Spinal FracturesSpinal Fractures

    Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed. The bone collapses when too much pressure is placed on the vertebrae, resulting in pain, limited mobility, loss of height, and spinal deformities.

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  • Fracture of the Thoracic and Lumbar SpineFracture of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

    The backbone is made of small bones arranged from the neck down to the buttocks, one above the other. The region at the chest and lower back are called the thoracic and lumbar spine, respectively. These are the two regions commonly affected by a fracture.

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  • Disc HerniationHerniated Disc

    Disc herniation is one of the common causes of back pain. The intervertebral discs are flat and round, present between the vertebrae and act as shock absorbers when you walk or run.

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  • Spine DeformitiesSpine Deformities

    It is a condition where the spine or backbone is curved sideways instead of appearing in a straight line. It curves like an “S” or “C” shape. Larger curves cause discomfort while the small curves do not cause any problems.

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  • SpondylodiscitisSpondylodiscitis

    Spondylodiscitis is an infection of the intervertebral discs (between the vertebrae) along with the vertebrae (one of many small bones forming the spine).

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  • Isthmic SpondylolisthesisIsthmic spondylolisthesis

    Isthmic Spondylolisthesis is a spinal disorder in which one vertebra glides forward over the vertebra below. It usually affects the lumbar (lower back) spine, more frequently at L5-S1 levels (the fifth lumbar vertebra and first sacral vertebra).

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  • Arm Pain of Spinal OriginArm Pain of Spinal Origin

    Arm pain of spinal origin can be described as discomfort or pain felt anywhere in the arm including the wrist, elbow, or shoulder as a result of a pinched nerve (nerve compression) or irritated nerve in the spinal cord.

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  • Cervicogenic HeadacheCervicogenic Headache

    Cervicogenic headaches involve pain in one or both sides of your head that radiates from your neck to the front of the head.

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  • Spinal Compression FracturesSpinal Compression Fractures

    A compression fracture of the vertebra occurs when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) collapse. Most commonly, these fractures occur in the thoracic or the middle portion of the spine.

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  • Spine DisordersSpine Disorders

    The spine is made up of a column of small bones called vertebrae that surround and protect the spinal cord and nerves that branch out from the spinal cord.

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  • Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition that commonly affects the spine. It is characterized by calcification (bony hardening) of ligaments, tendons and joint capsule insertions.

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  • Benign Spinal TumorsBenign Spinal Tumors

    The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerves that extends from the brain along the length of the spinal column. The spinal cord is protected by the surrounding vertebrae and three membranes called the meninges.

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  • SpondylolysisSpondylolysis

    Spondylolysis is a stress fracture in the vertebra that may progress into spondylolisthesis, a condition where the vertebra gets displaced from the spinal column.

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  • Vertebral Compression FracturesVertebral Compression Fractures

    Back pain is an indication of stress fractures known as vertebral compression fractures. Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed.

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  • Facet Joint ArthritisFacet Joint Arthritis

    Facet joints, also called zygapophyseal joints, are synovial joints located at the back of your spine, connecting the vertebrae together. Normally the facet joints are lined by a cartilage and a membrane of synovium.

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  • Trigeminal NeuralgiaTrigeminal Neuralgia

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a sharp, shooting, severe pain felt along the path of an irritated or damaged trigeminal nerve, the nerve which carries sensation from your face to your brain.

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  • Tarlov CystsTarlov Cysts

    A Tarlov cyst is a fluid-filled sac that affects the nerve roots of the spine, especially the sacral region, the group of bones at the base of the spine.

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  • Tethered Cord SyndromeTethered Cord Syndrome

    Tethered cord syndrome is a condition characterized by a restricted spinal cord within the spinal canal that cannot move upward with growth, causing stretching or damage to the spinal cord.

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  • Spine Injuries in AthletesSpine Injuries in Athletes

    Spine injuries in athletes are defined as damage sustained by the spine as a result of physical trauma or overuse in people who are actively involved in sports.

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  • Cauda Equina SyndromeCauda Equina Syndrome

    at Cauda equina syndrome is an emergency condition characterized by persistent severe lower back pain caused by the compression of a bundle of spinal nerves (cauda equina) at the end of the spinal cord (lower back and hip region).

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  • KyphosisKyphosis

    Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback. The thoracic portion of the spine normally has a C-shaped curve, but excessive forward curve in the spine leads to kyphosis.

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  • Degenerative Disc DiseaseDegenerative Disc Disease

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to the gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae.

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  • Scheuermann's KyphosisScheuermann's Kyphosis

    Scheuermann’s kyphosis is a deformity of the spine that develops during growth. It can be considered as increased kyphosis. Kyphosis is the C-shaped curving of the spine and is also known as hunchback.

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  • Sacroiliac Joint DysfunctionSacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    The sacrum is the triangular-shaped bone at the bottom of the spine, below the lumbar spine. The sacroiliac joint is a large joint in the body, formed by the connection of the sacrum and the right and left iliac (pelvic) bones.

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  • Adjacent Segment Disc DiseaseAdjacent Segment Disc Diseaseo

    Spinal fusion surgery involves the fusion of two or more vertebral bones and is a standard of care for spinal deformities and conditions such as radiculopathy, myelopathy, and spondylolisthesis.

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  • ChordomaChordoma

    Chordoma is a rare, slow-growing malignant tumor that develops in the spine and skull bones. It is thought to form from the remnants of the notochord (a preliminary structure present in a developing baby in the womb, which eventually forms the spinal cord). 

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  • Ankylosing SpondylitisAnkylosing Spondylitis

    Sacroiliac joints are present in the lower back where the sacrum part of the vertebrae joins the iliac bones. The term ankylosis stands for loss of mobility of the spine, whereas spondylitis means inflammation of the spine.

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  • SpondyloarthropathiesSpondyloarthropathies

    Spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the spine and joints. Spondyloarthropathies can occur at any age, however, they occur more often in young males.

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  • LordosisLordosis

    The spine forms a natural curve at the neck, torso, and lower back, which allows it to absorb shock and hold the weight of your head. When this curvature is accentuated at the lower back, it is called lordosis.

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  • Neck and Back InjuriesNeck and Back Injuries

    Neck and back injuries usually result from damage to the surrounding structures such as the muscles, bones, or ligaments of the neck and back. They are characterized by pain and discomfort and can sometimes be serious and result in permanent disability.

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  • Proximal Junctional KyphosisProximal Junctional Kyphosis

    Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common complication following adult spinal deformity surgery or a long spinal fusion. It is characterized by an abnormal bend of the vertebral column or spine, resulting in pain and reduced function.

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  • Pathological Fractures of the SpinePathological Fractures of the Spine

    Pathological fractures are broken bones in an area already weakened by another disease, not by an injury. Some underlying diseases can weaken the spinal bones making them brittle and eventually causing a fracture or break in the bone.

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  • Poor BalancePoor Balance

    Poor balance can be defined as a sense of unsteadiness on your feet due to dizzy spells or lightheadedness, fainting, blackouts, or loss of consciousness.

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  • Spina BifidaSpina Bifida

    Spina bifida is a congenital condition (birth defect) in which there is abnormal development of the back bones, spinal cord, surrounding nerves, and the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the spinal cord.

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  • Difficulty WalkingDifficulty Walking

    Walking is a complex interaction among multiple systems of the body. Proper walking is a result of balance, sensory function, reflexes, motor function, and many other systems working in conjunction.

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  • Peripheral Nerve CompressionPeripheral Nerve Compressiono

    The human body has 2 nervous systems, the central nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system that includes a network of nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Sagittal ImbalanceSagittal Imbalance

    The spine has three natural curves when viewed from the side, an inward curve in the neck and lower spine called lordosis and an outward curve in the mid-back called kyphosis.

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  • Adult Degenerative ScoliosisAdult Degenerative Scoliosis

    Adult degenerative scoliosis is characterized by side to side or lateral bending of the spine in adults. Degenerative scoliosis can involve either the mid-back and/or lower back region of the spine.

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  • DiscitisDiscitis

    Discitis, also called discitis, is inflammation between the spaces of the intervertebral discs in the spine. Intervertebral discs are located between the vertebrae and spaces between them are called intervertebral disc spaces. Swelling in these spaces puts pressure on the discs and results in pain.

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  • Failed Back Surgery SyndromeFailed Back Surgery Syndrome

    Failed back surgery syndrome is a term used to describe poor results from previous spine surgery.

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  • Neuromuscular ScoliosisNeuromuscular Scoliosis

    Scoliosis is a condition in which the spine bends to the left or right side resulting in an irregular shape. Neuromuscular scoliosis is a common type of scoliosis caused due to neuromuscular disorders affecting the muscles supporting the spine.

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  • Idiopathic ScoliosisIdiopathic Scoliosis

    Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, either to the left or to the right. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a type of scoliosis that occurs in children between 10 and 16 years of age.

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  • Spine Bone SpursSpine Bone Spurs

    Spine bone spurs, also called osteophytes, are bony projections that develop in the spine’s facet joints where cartilage has worn out or along the vertebral body’s endplates edges. It can grow at any level of the spinal column such as the low and mid-back and in the neck.

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  • Spinal StenosisSpinal Stenosis

    Spinal stenosis is a condition caused by the vertebral column constricting and exerting pressure on the spinal cord or neural foramen (a bony tunnel through which a nerve exits the spinal cord).

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  • Epidural AbscessEpidural Abscess

    An epidural abscess is a medical condition that can be defined as an infection in the region between the spine, or bones of the skull, and the membranes that surround the spinal cord (meninges) and brain.

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  • WhiplashWhiplash

    Whiplash is a soft tissue injury to the neck, usually caused by a sudden forceful jerk commonly occurring because of an automobile accident, sports injuries or an accidental fall. Headache may develop immediately or after a short period of time after the injury.

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  • Mid-back PainMid-back Pain

    Mid-back pain is also called as thoracic pain or upper back pain.

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  • Metastatic TumorsMetastatic Tumors

    A tumor (lump or mass) in your spine is an abnormal growth of tissue within or around your spinal column or spinal cord.

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  • Osteoporotic FracturesOsteoporotic Fractures

    Osteoporosis is a bone disorder where your bones become fragile and weak causing them to break easily. The condition occurs when your body starts losing bone or does not make enough bone or both, due to calcium deficiency. Osteoporosis is common in the spine.

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  • Adolescent Idiopathic ScoliosisAdolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, either to the left or to the right.

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  • Adult Kyphosis-Types and CausesAdult Kyphosis-Types and Causes

    Postural kyphosis is the result of poor posture and is common in adolescents and younger adults. Slouching posture when sitting or standing tends to cause the spine to curve forward.

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  • Back Pain in ChildrenBack Pain in Children

    Back pain is uncommon in children and is usually associated with a serious underlying condition or an injury. Often, the cause of back pain is non-specific and is thought to be due to musculoskeletal strain, poor posture, heavy school bags that are not worn correctly or underlying mood problems.

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  • Neck Strains and SprainsNeck Strains and Sprains

    The neck is the most flexible part of the spine and supports the weight of the head.

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  • RadiculopathyRadiculopathy

    Certain diseases or mechanical compression of these spinal nerves due to deformities in the vertebral column can lead to radiculopathy.

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  • Osteoporosis of the SpineOsteoporosis of the Spine

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density resulting in brittle, fragile bones that are more susceptible to fractures. The condition most commonly affects elderly women.

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  • Degenerative Spinal ConditionsDegenerative Spinal Conditions

    A degenerative condition is a continuous deterioration of a tissue or an organ in your body over time.

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  • Disc ChangesDisc changes

    The cartilaginous disc is made up of an outer fibrous layer called the annulus fibrosus, which surrounds an inner gelatinous core called the nucleus pulposus.

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